Table 3.

Nutrients explaining the ethnic disparity in risk for methylationa

Nutrient not adjustedNutrient adjusted
Nutrient (U/d)bEstimateSEPEstimateSEPRatioPpermc
Manganese (mg)0.1440.0690.0360.1120.0690.1060.770.001
Vitamin D (IU)0.1440.0690.0360.1210.0690.0810.840.006
Magnesium (mg)0.1440.0690.0360.1230.0690.0750.850.006
Folate equivalents (μg)0.1440.0690.0360.1270.0690.0680.880.023
Manganese without supplements (mg)0.1440.0690.0360.1270.0690.0660.880.009
Folic acid (μg)0.1440.0690.0360.1280.0690.0660.880.026
Total folate intake (μg)0.1440.0690.0360.1280.0690.0660.880.021
Niacin (mg)0.1440.0690.0360.1300.0690.0610.890.023
Total vitamin E atoco (mg)0.1440.0690.0360.1310.0690.0560.91<0.001
Pantothenic acid (mg)0.1440.0690.0360.1320.0690.0560.920.036
Alcohol (g)0.1440.0690.0360.1330.0690.0530.920.038
Vitamin B12 (μg)0.1440.0690.0360.1400.0690.0410.970.002
All above0.1440.0690.0360.0840.0700.2310.58<0.001
  • aAdjusted for age, sex, current smoking status, pack years, and total calorie intake in the GEE models.

  • bAssessment of total folate intake and folate equivalents includes all sources (i.e., natural food, supplements, and fortified foods). Folic acid includes supplements and fortified foods.

  • cThe methylation data for 12-gene was permuted randomly for 1,000 times with delta change of beta coefficient for ethnicity for each individual nutrient calculated in each permutated database that formed the null distribution. The observed delta value was compared with this null distribution and P value was calculated as the percentage of permutations that resulted in delta values smaller than the observed value.