Table 1.

Demographics and clinical characteristics of study participants

Placebo + no lifestyle (n = 8)Placebo + lifestyle (n = 7)Metformin + no lifestyle (n = 7)Metformin + lifestyle (n = 7)Total
N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)
Age (years), mean (SD), range60.0 (4.5) (55–66)57.1 (3.3) (53–61)55.8 (5.2) (50–65)57.5 (4.4) (50–61)57.5 (4.4) (50–66)
BMI, mean (SD), range36.7 (5.5) (29.7–46.6)39.7 (5.1) (33.7–46.5)38.3 (5.1) (32.0–46.6)42.2 (6.7) (32.1–50.7)39.1 (5.7) (29.7–50.7)
Race
 Black4 (50.0)2 (28.6)1 (14.3)5 (71.4)12 (41.4)
 White4 (50.0)4 (57.1)5 (71.4)2 (28.6)15 (51.7)
 More than one race0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (14.3)0 (0.0)1 (3.4)
 Other0 (0.0)1 (14.3)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (3.4)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic2 (25.0)2 (28.6)1 (14.3)0 (0.0)5 (17.2)
 Non-Hispanic6 (75.0)5 (71.4)6 (85.7)7 (100.0)24 (82.8)
Education
 Finished high school0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (14.3)0 (0.0)1 (3.4)
 Technical/vocational degree0 (0.0)1 (14.3)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (3.4)
 Some college or 2-year degree5 (62.5)3 (42.9)1 (14.3)3 (42.9)12 (41.4)
 Bachelors3 (37.5)2 (28.6)4 (57.1)3 (42.9)12 (41.4)
 Masters0 (0.0)1 (14.3)1 (14.3)1 (14.3)3 (10.3)
Marital status
 Single1 (12.5)1 (14.3)1 (14.3)1 (14.3)4 (13.8)
 Married4 (50.0)4 (57.1)4 (57.1)1 (14.3)13 (44.8)
 Divorced1 (12.5)2 (28.6)2 (28.6)3 (42.9)8 (27.6)
 Living with a significant other0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (14.3)1 (3.4)
 Widow2 (25.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (14.3)3 (10.3)
Children
 No2 (25.0)1 (14.3)0 (0.0)1 (14.3)4 (13.8)
 Yes6 (75.0)6 (85.7)7 (100.0)6 (85.7)25 (86.2)
Comorbidities
 None3 (37.5)5 (71.4)4 (57.1)3 (42.9)15 (51.7)
 High cholesterol0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (14.3)1 (3.4)
 Hypertension4 (50.0)2 (28.6)1 (14.3)3 (42.9)10 (34.5)
 Othera1 (12.5)0 (0.0)2 (28.6)0 (0.0)3 (10.3)
  • NOTE: The table includes all participants that were randomized and started the intervention.

  • aComorbidities reported as “Other” were described as hypothyroid (n = 2) and asymptomatic heart murmur (n = 1).