Table 2.

The most promising studies of chemopreventive natural compounds in HNSCC

Most promising trials
Natural compoundTypeCompoundResultSource
Vitamin AClinicalIsotretinoin, IFNα, α-tocopherolImproved survival rate and lowered secondary primary tumors(6, 12, 13)
CurcuminClinicalCurcuminReduced oral premalignant and high-risk lesions(23, 24)
IsothiocyanatePreclinicalBITC, cisplatinIncrease in apoptosis and decrease in HNSCC cell viability(31, 32)
Green teaClinicalGTE, erlotinibReduced oral premalignant lesions(47)
LuteolinPreclinicalEGCG, luteolinInduced apoptosis, inhibited growth of xenograft tumors(58)
ResveratrolPreclinicalResveratrolInduced apoptosis(99)
GenisteinPreclinicalCetuximab, genisteinTumor growth inhibition, apoptosis(83)
LycopeneClinicalLycopeneReduction in HNSCC(92)
Bitter melonPreclinicalBMEInhibition of HNSCC growth in mice(93, 95)
Withaferin APreclinicalWithaferin AApoptosis of HNSCC cell lines(96)
GuggulsteronePreclinicalGuggulsteroneIncreased efficacy of erlotinib, cetuximab, and cisplatin(97)
  • Abbreviation: BITC, benzyl isothiocyanate; GTE, green tea extract; EGCG, epigallocatechin-3-gallate; BME, bitter melon extract.