Table 3.

Changes in endometrial proliferation and blood-based biomarkers at 16 weeks by intervention

EffectMean change95% LB95% UBP
Ki-67 (%)
 Metformin (ref: no metformin)−2.74−8.753.270.352
 Lifestyle (ref: no lifestyle)−3.68−9.692.340.216
Estradiol (pg/mL)
 Metformin−0.62−6.955.710.841
 Lifestyle0.29−6.046.620.925
Estrone (pg/mL)
 Metformin−1.52−8.945.910.675
 Lifestyle−0.20−7.627.230.957
DHEA-S (mcg/dL)
 Metformin33.6716.1051.250.001
 Lifestyle−6.20−23.7811.370.473
SHBG (nmol/L)
 Metformin5.06−2.3112.430.169
 Lifestyle9.371.9916.740.015
Adiponectin (mcg/mL)
 Metformin0.93−0.382.250.155
 Lifestyle0.64−0.671.950.324
IGF-I (ng/mL)
 Metformin−9.39−21.722.940.129
 Lifestyle−2.90−15.229.430.632
Omentin (ng/mL)
 Metformin31.82−107.24170.880.640
 Lifestyle62.59−76.47201.660.361
Insulin (mIU/mL)
 Metformin−2.13−10.125.860.586
 Lifestyle−9.81−17.80−1.820.018
Glucose (mg/dL)
 Metformin2.51−3.958.960.430
 Lifestyle−1.94−8.394.520.541
FSH (mIU/mL)
 Metformin0.56−4.765.880.830
 Lifestyle−0.29−5.615.030.912
Hemoglobin (g/dL)
 Metformin−0.14−0.680.400.600
 Lifestyle−0.18−0.720.370.510
A1C (%)
 Metformin−0.22−0.42−0.010.036
 Lifestyle0.16−0.040.360.115
Creatine (mg/dL)
 Metformin−0.02−0.100.050.543
 Lifestyle−0.05−0.120.030.199
ALT (IU/L)
 Metformin−1.36−11.348.610.780
 Lifestyle−1.35−11.338.630.782
Triglycerides (mg/dL)
 Metformin−2.83−30.7625.090.836
 Lifestyle−21.03−48.956.900.133
FGF21 (pg/mL)
 Metformin19.70−82.62122.010.694
 Lifestyle−53.16−155.4849.150.294
C-peptide (pg/mL)
 Metformin−283.06−530.89−35.220.027
 Lifestyle−211.04−458.8836.790.091
Leptin (pg/mL)
 Metformin−6746.86−15377.001883.280.119
 Lifestyle−3741.67−12371.814888.470.379
Visfatin (pg/mL)
 Metformin−70.00−1792.211652.210.934
 Lifestyle−1167.96−2890.17554.250.174
  • NOTE: P value cutoff for statistical significance = 0.0025. P value showed in bold (0.001) indicating significant difference. Table only includes participants completing the 16-week intervention. LB, lower bound; UB, upper bound.