Table 1.

Age-adjusted characteristics of participants in NHS and HPFS according to person-time of family history of diabetes

NHSHPFS
No family history of diabetesHaving family history of diabetesNo family history of diabetesHaving family history of diabetes
Person-years976,845346,027400,456107,953
Age, ya61.6 (10.9)63.1 (10.4)64.5 (10.9)66.2 (10.6)
White, %97.596.795.994.4
BMI, kg/m225.9 (5.1)27.0 (5.5)25.9 (3.8)26.4 (3.8)
BMI at age 18 (NHS) or 21 (HPFS), kg/m221.2 (2.8)21.6 (3.2)22.0 (5.4)22.3 (5.3)
Alcohol, g/d5.9 (10.4)4.6 (9.1)11.5 (15.3)10.3 (14.1)
Physical activity, MET-h/week17.1 (21.5)16.4 (21.3)29.4 (30.6)28.9 (29.6)
Past smoker, %41.741.445.747.2
Current smoker, %14.212.85.15.0
Premenopausal, %14.313.3NANA
Multivitamin use, %55.754.657.358.0
Aspirin use, %45.447.640.145.5
Colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy in the past 2 years, %22.323.926.829.4
Physical examination in the past 2 years, %65.067.453.059.2
Family history of colorectal cancer, %20.221.914.815.9
History of hypertension, %27.331.632.538.4
History of hypercholesterolemia, %27.832.226.131.0
History of diabetes, %3.69.94.111.4
Total energy intake, kcal/d1,702 (543)1,703 (541)1,983 (633)1,969 (636)
Protein intake, g/d73.5 (11.2)74.8 (11.1)90.1 (13.8)91.5 (13.5)
Cholesterol intake, g/d265.5 (83.6)267.9 (81.0)277.7 (91.4)279.1 (87.6)
Fiber intake, g/d17.6 (4.7)17.7 (4.6)22.1 (6.5)22.4 (6.3)
AHEI score43.3 (9.8)43.6 (9.5)48.5 (10.0)49.0 (9.8)
  • aValue was not adjusted for age.