Table 3.

Effects of Multiple Agents on Development of ER+ Cancers in the MNU-Induced Mammary Model in Sprague Dawley Rats; Comparison of Current and Previous Results

Agent (Dose)Tumor IncidenceaTumor MultiplicitybTumor WeightcReferenced
Tamoxifen (2 ppm)a100%* ↓/94%*↓100%*↓/96%*↓100%*↓/98%*↓10
Vorozole (1.2 mg/kg BW)73/%*↓/74%*↓88%*↓/90%*↓94%*↓/ND11
Bexarotene (Targretin) 150 ppm77%*↓/48%*↓93%*↓/85%*↓95%*↓/ND22
Gefitinib (Iressa) 10 mg/kg BW83%*↓/78%*↓92%*↓/80%*↓97*↓/98%*↓16
Atorvastatin (Lipitor) 200 ppm5%↑/0%12%↓/29%↑12%↓/37%↑25
Metformin (150 mg/kg BW)0%/0%65%*↑/23%↑63%*↑/50%*↑27
Naproxen (400 ppm)10%↑/0%40%*↑/27%↑54%*↑/38%↑28
  • aFor example, Tamoxifen (2ppm) tumor incidence: 100%*↓/94%*↓. Comparison is results for treatment group compared to a simultaneously performed control group. In a recent study tumor incidence was reduced 100%, while in the prior published results tumor incidence was reduced 94%. Final parameters (Incidence, multiplicity, tumor weight) at the end of the study are significantly different, P < 0.05; employing a non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Test.

  • bSimilar analysis for tumor multiplicity.

  • cSimilar analysis for final tumor weights. Fifty percent with an arrow down (50%↓) would be a 50% decrease in the parameter examined. Fifty percent with an arrow up (50%↑) would be a 50% increase in the parameter examined. ND = Not determined in the prior study.

  • dReference to prior published study examining the indicated agent.