Table 1.

Characteristics of The Animal Models Employed

A.MNU-Induced Mammary Cancer in Sprague-Dawley Rats
  Characteristics: Minimally invasive ER positive adenocarcinomas induced by methylnitrosourea in adolescent rats. Tumors by genomic analysis are similar to human well-differentiated ER positive breast cancers.
B.MMTV-Neu/P53ko Transgenic Mice Develop Neu Overexpressing ER Negative Mammary Cancers
  Characteristics: ER negative mammary carcinomas in MMTV-Neu transgenic mice. Tumors overexpress wild type Neu, and have altered P53 like human ER negative Neu over expressing tumors.
C.Min Mice Develop Multiple Intestinal Lesions
  Characteristics: Mice have germline mutation in the APC gene induced by the mutagen ENU. Mutations in APC are found in human with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome and most sporadic colon polyps and cancers. The mice develop tumors (adenomas) primarily in the small intestine.
D.AOM-Induced Colon Cancers in Fischer-344 Rats
  Characteristics: Colon tumors are induced by organ-specific carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM). These are minimally invasive adenocarcinomas in colon. Tumors have mutations in β-catenin, the same pathway found in humans (APC gene) and roughly 40 - 50% of rat colon tumors have Ki Ras mutations like humans.
E.OH-BBN-induced Invasive Urinary Bladder Cancers in Female Fischer -344 Rats
  Characteristics: Tumors induced by organ-specific carcinogen hydroxy-butyl-butyl-nitrosamine yield invasive urinary bladder cancers. These tumors look histopathologically similar to human invasive bladder cancer. RNA analyses have shown substantial overlap between invasive human bladder cancer and those observed in the rodent bladder cancers.
F.UV-induced Squamous Cell Skin Cancers In SKH Hairless Mice
  Characteristics: Squamous cell skin cancers induced by repeated UVB exposure. This is the same carcinogen as in humans. Histologically, tumors look like those in humans. Mouse and human SCCs driven by P53 mutations at dipyridine sites.
  • Abbreviations: AOM = azoxymethane; APC = Adenomatous polyposis coli; ER = estrogen receptor; MMTV = mouse mammary tumor virus; MNU = N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; RNA = ribonucleic acid; ENU = Ethylnitrosourea; SCC = Squamous cell carcinoma.