Table 1.

Distributions of IR phenotypes in 6 genome-wide association studies (total n = 11,794)

Phenotype
StudynFasting glucoseFasting insulinHOMA-IR
Circulating plasma level
mg/dL, median (range)μIU/mL, median (range)Median (range)
AS2641,85794.6 (72.0–140.0)7.7 (1.6–37.6)1.80 (0.34–10.02)
GARNET2,20194.0 (62.0–327.0)7.7 (1.0–57.0)1.83 (0.20–19.26)
GECCO-CYTO1,35394.1 (65.0–133.0)7.1 (0.9–30.5)1.64 (0.18–7.57)
GECCO-INIT22592.4 (73.0–191.0)6.2 (0.9–45.6)1.39 (0.18–21.51)
HIPFX2,29093.6 (68.0–257.0)6.7 (1.3–47.9)1.54 (0.30–12.67)
WHIMS3,86893.0 (39.0–296.0)6.0 (0.3–104.1)1.39 (0.07–24.68)
Binary analysis
<100 mg/dL/≥100 mg/dLa≤8.6 μIU/mL/>8.6 μIU/mLa<3.0/≥3.0a
n (%)n (%)n (%)
AS2641,8571,693 (91.2)/164 (8.8)1,141 (61.4)/716 (38.6)1,708 (92.0)/149 (8.0)
GARNET2,2011,552 (70.5)/649 (29.5)1,259 (57.2)/942 (42.8)1,701 (77.3)/500 (22.7)
GECCO-CYTO1,3531,226 (90.6)/127 (9.4)914 (67.6)/439 (32.4)1,245 (92.0)/108 (8.0)
GECCO-INIT225204 (90.7)/21 (9.3)163 (72.4)/62 (27.6)215 (95.6)/10 (4.4)
HIPFX2,2902,108 (92.1)/182 (7.9)1,704 (74.4)/586 (25.6)2,177 (95.1)/113 (4.9)
WHIMS3,8682,960 (76.5)/908 (23.5)2,795 (72.3)/1,073 (27.7)3,405 (88.0)/463 (12.0)
  • NOTE: The HOMA-IR was estimated as glucose (mg/dL) × insulin (μIU/mL)/405 (21).

  • aEach of 3 phenotypes (glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) was categorized by using the corresponding cutoff values (100 mg/dL, 8.6 μIU/mL, and 3.0, respectively); blood levels higher than the threshold were considered to indicate glucose intolerance and/or IR status (21, 24–26).