Table 2.

Association of breast white adipose tissue inflammation severity with demographic and clinical characteristics

TotalSeverea (N = 19)Milda (N = 22)None (N = 50)
CharacteristicsNN (%)N (%)N (%)Pb
AgeMedian (range)9174 (53–91)69 (36–89)66 (39–96)0.15
Country of originDominican Republic578 (42%)15 (68%)34 (68%)0.03
Puerto Rican158 (42%)2 (9%)5 (10%)
South American20 (0%)0 (0%)2 (4%)
Mexican20 (0%)2 (9%)0 (0%)
Cuban00 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Other Hispanic153 (16%)3 (14%)9 (18%)
EducationHigh school317 (37%)7 (32%)17 (34%)0.40
College225 (26%)2 (9%)15 (30%)
Graduate school244 (21%)8 (36%)12 (24%)
EmploymentEmployed184 (21%)3 (14%)11 (22%)0.26
Unemployed252 (11%)8 (36%)15 (30%)
Retired2710 (53%)6 (27%)11 (22%)
Homemaker81 (5%)2 (9%)5 (10%)
Income0–$15,0004911 (58%)16 (73%)22 (44%)0.41
$15,000+214 (21%)4 (18%)13 (26%)
PostmenopauseYes7217 (89%)16 (73%)39 (78%)0.45
No192 (11%)6 (27%)11 (22%)
Current smokingYes81 (5%)5 (23%)2 (4%)0.04
No7116 (84%)14 (64%)41 (82%)
History of smokingCurrent70 (0%)5 (23%)2 (4%)0.10
Ever113 (16%)2 (9%)6 (12%)
Never5211 (58%)11 (50%)30 (60%)
Current alcohol useYes256 (32%)6 (27%)13 (26%)0.95
No5511 (58%)14 (64%)30 (60%)
Stage090 (0%)5 (23%)4 (8%)0.18
I369 (47%)6 (27%)21 (42%)
II356 (32%)8 (36%)21 (42%)
III114 (21%)3 (14%)4 (8%)
ERPositive7816 (84%)18 (82%)44 (88%)0.62
Negative112 (11%)4 (18%)5 (10%)
PRPositive6413 (68%)16 (73%)35 (70%)1.00
Negative255 (26%)6 (27%)14 (28%)
HER2cPositive71 (5%)4 (18%)2 (4%)0.24
Negative4210 (53%)7 (32%)25 (50%)
Indeterminate297 (37%)6 (27%)16 (32%)
Not applicable70 (0%)3 (14%)4 (8%)
Neoadjuvant chemotherapyYes155 (26%)6 (27%)4 (8%)0.04
No7513 (68%)16 (73%)46 (92%)
Biological markersNN (Mean, SD)N (Mean, SD)PN (Mean, SD)P
Liver function tests
 ALT (U/L)8619 (24.4, 8.8)20 (16.9, 9.6)0.0147 (17.5, 9.1)0.01
 AST (U/L)8619 (22.8, 6.6)20 (18.5, 5.4)0.0347 (19.5, 6.0)0.05
Adipocyte diameter (μm)
 Mean (SD)8919 (108.3, 16.6)21 (103.2, 11.4)0.3149 (99.3, 16.9)0.04
 Range(81.9–139.8)(71.8–117.5)(59.7–135.2)
  • NOTE: For all variables, the number of participants who did not respond to the question were not displayed in this table, therefore the percentages may not add up to 100%.

  • Abbreviations: ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor.

  • aInflammation severity is defined categorically as follows and using the value of 0.27 CLS-B/cm2 as the cutoff: no inflammation (absent CLS-B), mild inflammation (≤0.27 CLS-B/cm2), and severe inflammation (>0.27 CLS-B/cm2).

  • bFisher exact test excluded the “Unknown” category.

  • cPatients with stage 0 breast cancer were considered not applicable for IHC testing.