Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study participants by smoking status in the WHI study

VariableaNever smokersFormer smokersCurrent smokersP valueb
Total sample [n (%)]75,458 (52.4)57,606 (40.2)10,215 (7.1)<0.0001
Baseline age (mean ± SD, years)63.53 ± 7.363.09 ± 7.161.07 ± 6.8<0.0001
Race/ethnicity (%)<0.0001
 American Indian/Alaska336 (0.4)251 (0.4)68 (0.6)
 Asian/Pacific Islander2,955 (3.7)940 (1.5)165 (1.5)
 Black/African-American6,881 (8.7)4,953 (8.1)1,590 (14.6)
 Hispanic/Latino3,904 (4.9)1,664 (2.7)451 (4.1)
 Non-Hispanic White64,395 (81.1)52,781 (86.2)8,507 (78.0)
 Other981 (1.2)618 (1.0)133 (1.2)
Education level (%)<0.0001
 High school/less19,033 (24.1)12,232 (20.1)2,881 (26.5)
 Some college/tech training28,665 (36.3)23,802 (39.1)4,725 (43.5)
 College/some post-college17,359 (22.0)14,307 (23.5)1,983 (18.3)
 Master/higher13,974 (17.7)10,544 (17.3)1,278 (11.8)
Occupation (%)<0.0001
 Managerial/professional29,946 (37.7)24,864 (40.6)3,701 (33.9)
 Technical/sales21,552 (27.1)16,877 (27.6)3,219 (29.5)
 Service/labor13,189 (16.6)9,452 (15.4)2,192 (20.1)
 Homemaker only8,391 (10.6)5,316 (8.7)835 (7.7)
Marital status (%)<0.0001
 Never married3,549 (4.5)2,505 (4.1)591 (5.4)
 Divorced/separated10,551 (13.3)10,686 (17.5)2,897 (26.5)
 Widowed13,680 (17.2)10,299 (16.8)2,080 (19.1)
 Presently married50,625 (63.7)35,672 (59.8)5,076 (46.5)
 Marriage-like relationship1,047 (1.3)1,145 (1.9)270 (2.5)
BMI (%, kg/m2)<0.0001
 <2527,874 (35.1)20,450 (33.4)4,410 (40.4)
 25–<3027,201 (34.2)21,188 (34.6)3,712 (34.0)
 ≥3023,719 (29.9)19,015 (31.1)2,692 (24.7)
Physical activity (%)<0.0001
 No activity11,977 (15.1)8,523 (13.9)2,518 (23.1)
 Some activity of limited duration31,819 (40.1)22,184 (36.2)4,812 (44.1)
 2–<4 episodes per week13,347 (16.8)10,899 (17.9)1,402 (12.9)
 ≥4 episodes per week18,762 (23.6)16,842 (27.5)1,626 (14.9)
Alcohol consumption (%)<0.0001
 None drinker14,735 (18.6)1,776 (2.9)396 (3.6)
 Former drinker13,583 (17.1)12,373 (20.2)2,225 (20.4)
 Current drinker51,134 (64.4)47,058 (76.9)8,293 (76.0)
Family history of cancer (%)<0.0001
 No26,049 (33.8)19,011 (32.0)3,707 (35.3)
 Yes50,045 (65.0)39,698 (66.9)6,633 (63.1)
Dietary energy (mean ± SD, kcal)1620.6 ± 724.31639.5 ± 691.81624.7 ± 785.0<0.0001
Percent calories from fat (mean ± SD, %)32.6 ± 8.232.3 ± 8.535.9 ± 8.4<0.0001
Daily fruit and vegetable intake (median portion of servings, SD)4.1 (2.2)4.1 (2.1)3.1 (1.9)<0.0001
  • aValues are n (%), if not specified.

  • bP values were computed for comparison among never, former, and current smokers.