Table 2.

Nut consumption and risk of HCC in the pooled NHS and HPFS

Nut consumption, HR (95% CI)
Tertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3Ptrend
Nuts
 Number of cases455265
 Age-adjusted modela1 (Reference)0.83 (0.55–1.24)0.94 (0.64–1.38)0.98
 Multivariable-adjusted modelb1 (Reference)0.79 (0.53–1.19)0.84 (0.56–1.26)0.63
Peanutsc
 Number of cases544162
 Age-adjusted modela1 (Reference)0.79 (0.52–1.19)0.96 (0.66–1.38)0.90
 Multivariable-adjusted modelb1 (Reference)0.74 (0.49–1.12)0.84 (0.57–1.23)0.62
Tree nutsc
 Number of cases634450
 Age-adjusted modela1 (Reference)0.70 (0.47–1.04)0.72 (0.49–1.04)0.17
 Multivariable-adjusted modelb1 (Reference)0.68 (0.45–1.01)0.64 (0.43–0.95)0.07
Walnutsd
 Number of cases551033
 Age-adjusted modela1 (Reference)0.58 (0.26–1.32)0.69 (0.44–1.07)0.19
 Multivariable-adjusted modelb1 (Reference)0.63 (0.28–1.43)0.71 (0.45–1.12)0.23
Peanut butter
 Number of cases446157
 Age-adjusted modela1 (Reference)1.10 (0.74–1.63)0.88 (0.59–1.32)0.34
 Multivariable-adjusted modelb1 (Reference)1.07 (0.72–1.60)0.83 (0.55–1.25)0.22
Peanuts and peanut butter
 Number of cases445860
 Age-adjusted modela1 (Reference)1.01 (0.68–1.51)0.90 (0.61–1.34)0.52
 Multivariable-adjusted modelb1 (Reference)0.95 (0.63–1.42)0.81 (0.53–1.22)0.27
  • NOTE: The mean values (serving/week) for each tertile category were 0.08, 0.52, and 2.45 for total nuts; 0.03, 0.26, and 1.53 for peanuts; 0.01, 0.23, and 1.25 for tree nuts; 0, 0.03, and 0.62 for walnuts; 0.03, 0.50, and 2.86 for peanut butter; and 0.17, 0.87, and 3.66 for peanuts and peanut butter.

  • aAdjusted for age (in months).

  • bAdjusted for age (in months), gender (women, men), race (white, non-white), physical activity (MET-hours/week, continuous), BMI (kg/m2, continuous), smoking status (never, past, current), aspirin use (no, yes), type II diabetes (no, yes), total alcohol intake (g/day, continuous), total coffee intake (≤1, 2–3, ≥4 cups/day), and total calorie intake (kcal/day, continuous).

  • cFirst reported in 1986.

  • dFirst reported in 1998.