Table 3.

Mushroom consumption and risk of total and site-specific cancer by smoking status (NHS, 1986–2012; HPFS, 1986–2012)

Frequency of mushroom consumption, per serving
Never or almost never<1/week1/week2–4/week5+/weekPer 2/week increasePtrend
Total cancera,b
 Ever smokers (n = 13,365)1 (ref)1.03 (1.00–1.07)1.04 (1.00–1.08)1.04 (0.99–1.09)1.06 (0.98–1.14)1.02 (0.97–1.07)0.54
 Never smokers (n = 9,104)1 (ref)1.04 (1.00–1.08)1.05 (1.01–1.09)1.06 (1.01–1.11)1.08 (1.00–1.16)1.03 (0.98–1.08)0.28
Cancer sitesb
Colorectal cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 1,376)1 (ref)0.97 (0.87–1.09)1.06 (0.94–1.19)0.89 (0.76–1.04)0.85 (0.65–1.10)0.88 (0.73–1.06)0.17
 Never smokers (n = 966)1 (ref)0.98 (0.87–1.09)1.06 (0.94–1.20)0.90 (0.77–1.05)0.86 (0.66–1.12)0.89 (0.74–1.07)0.21
Lung cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 1,732)1 (ref)1.25 (1.11–1.42)1.19 (1.04–1.37)1.26 (1.07–1.48)1.36 (1.05–1.76)1.17 (1.00–1.36)0.05
 Never smokers (n = 304)1 (ref)1.29 (1.14–1.46)1.28 (1.11–1.46)1.37 (1.16–1.62)1.56 (1.21–2.02)1.24 (1.07–1.42)0.004
Lymphoma
 Ever smokers (n = 762)1 (ref)1.12 (0.97–1.30)1.06 (0.91–1.25)1.20 (0.99–1.45)1.25 (0.93–1.68)1.13 (0.94–1.34)0.19
 Never smokers (n = 694)1 (ref)1.12 (0.97–1.30)1.07 (0.91–1.25)1.20 (1.00–1.45)1.26 (0.93–1.69)1.13 (0.95–1.35)0.18
Bladder cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 682)1 (ref)1.14 (0.96–1.35)1.13 (0.93–1.37)1.14 (0.90–1.44)1.29 (0.88–1.89)1.18 (0.94–1.49)0.15
 Never smokers (n = 319)1 (ref)1.15 (0.97–1.37)1.16 (0.96–1.40)1.18 (0.93–1.49)1.37 (0.93–2.01)1.23 (0.98–1.54)0.08
Pancreatic cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 328)1 (ref)1.14 (0.91–1.43)0.99 (0.76–1.28)1.10 (0.81–1.49)0.76 (0.42–1.37)0.90 (0.61–1.33)0.61
 Never smokers (n = 233)1 (ref)1.14 (0.90–1.43)0.99 (0.77–1.28)1.10 (0.81–1.49)0.77 (0.43–1.39)0.91 (0.62–1.34)0.64
Kidney cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 299)1 (ref)0.94 (0.75–1.19)1.05 (0.82–1.35)1.10 (0.81–1.49)0.66 (0.35–1.24)0.89 (0.58–1.35)0.57
 Never smokers (n = 246)1 (ref)0.95 (0.75–1.19)1.06 (0.83–1.36)1.12 (0.82–1.51)0.67 (0.36–1.26)0.90 (0.60–1.37)0.63
Leukemia
 Ever smokers (n = 215)1 (ref)1.07 (0.82–1.40)0.79 (0.58–1.07)0.82 (0.56–1.21)1.15 (0.65–2.04)0.83 (0.49–1.38)0.47
 Never smokers (n = 171)1 (ref)1.07 (0.82–1.40)0.78 (0.57–1.07)0.82 (0.56–1.21)1.16 (0.65–2.06)0.83 (0.50–1.39)0.48
Multiple myeloma
 Ever smokers (n = 185)1 (ref)0.92 (0.68–1.25)1.21 (0.88–1.66)1.07 (0.72–1.59)1.03 (0.52–2.05)0.94 (0.59–1.50)0.79
 Never smokers (n = 149)1 (ref)0.92 (0.68–1.25)1.21 (0.88–1.66)1.07 (0.72–1.59)1.03 (0.52–2.04)0.94 (0.58–1.50)0.78
Brain cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 139)1 (ref)1.03 (0.74–1.44)1.08 (0.75–1.54)1.03 (0.66–1.60)1.44 (0.75–2.78)1.37 (0.96–1.97)0.09
 Never smokers (n = 131)1 (ref)1.03 (0.74–1.44)1.07 (0.75–1.54)1.03 (0.66–1.59)1.45 (0.75–2.78)1.36 (0.95–1.95)0.09
Oral cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 132)1 (ref)0.93 (0.64–1.34)0.83 (0.55–1.25)1.18 (0.73–1.89)0.68 (0.26–1.79)0.88 (0.46–1.71)0.71
 Never smokers (n = 82)1 (ref)0.93 (0.64–1.33)0.84 (0.56–1.27)1.18 (0.74–1.89)0.69 (0.26–1.82)0.90 (0.46–1.75)0.76
Stomach cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 115)1 (ref)1.12 (0.76–1.64)1.16 (0.77–1.77)0.96 (0.56–1.64)1.37 (0.62–3.01)1.00 (0.59–1.68)0.99
 Never smokers (n = 88)1 (ref)1.13 (0.77–1.66)1.18 (0.78–1.79)0.97 (0.57–1.67)1.40 (0.64–3.10)1.02 (0.60–1.72)0.94
Esophageal
 Ever smokers (n = 145)1 (ref)0.74 (0.51–1.08)0.69 (0.45–1.06)1.09 (0.68–1.73)0.57 (0.20–1.64)0.90 (0.45–1.80)0.77
 Never smokers (n = 54)1 (ref)0.76 (0.52–1.11)0.70 (0.46–1.08)1.11 (0.70–1.78)0.61 (0.22–1.75)0.94 (0.47–1.86)0.85
Liver cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 65)1 (ref)1.05 (0.60–1.84)1.85 (1.05–3.25)1.68 (0.84–3.34)2.39 (0.91–6.32)1.67 (1.00–2.79)0.05
 Never smokers (n = 48)1 (ref)1.06 (0.61–1.86)1.86 (1.06–3.28)1.69 (0.85–3.37)2.45 (0.93–6.47)1.67 (1.00–2.79)0.05
Sex-specific cancer sitesc
Breast cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 2,947)1 (ref)1.11 (1.00–1.24)1.09 (0.97–1.22)1.08 (0.94–1.23)0.88 (0.72–1.09)0.92 (0.81–1.06)0.24
 Never smokers (n = 2,450)1 (ref)0.96 (0.86–1.07)0.91 (0.81–1.03)0.99 (0.86–1.15)0.96 (0.76–1.21)0.98 (0.83–1.15)0.78
Endometrial cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 516)1 (ref)0.84 (0.65–1.09)0.98 (0.75–1.27)0.81 (0.58–1.11)1.28 (0.86–1.89)1.07 (0.83–1.39)0.60
 Never smokers (n = 549)1 (ref)0.98 (0.79–1.24)0.97 (0.75–1.24)0.86 (0.63–1.19)0.96 (0.59–1.54)0.96 (0.67–1.36)0.81
Ovarian cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 323)1 (ref)1.05 (0.77–1.43)0.91 (0.65–1.28)1.08 (0.72–1.62)0.90 (0.48–1.68)0.92 (0.60–1.42)0.72
 Never smokers (n = 227)1 (ref)0.60 (0.42–0.85)0.74 (0.51–1.07)0.83 (0.52–1.33)0.88 (0.41–1.88)0.91 (0.51–1.64)0.76
Advanced prostate cancer
 Ever smokers (n = 497)1 (ref)0.99 (0.78–1.26)0.98 (0.75–1.29)1.10 (0.79–1.52)1.03 (0.58–1.84)1.12 (0.79–1.58)0.53
 Never smokers (n = 459)1 (ref)1.20 (0.93–1.55)1.31 (0.99–1.73)0.92 (0.64–1.34)1.00 (0.50–1.98)0.82 (0.49–1.39)0.47
  • NOTE: All models included for age, race (white or non-white), height (continuous), body mass index (quintiles), family history of cancer (yes or no), physical exam in past 2 years (yes or no), history of colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy (yes or no), smoking in pack-years (never smoker, 1–4.9, 5–19.9, 20–39.9, or ≥40), physical activity (quintiles), regular aspirin use (yes or no), multivitamin use (yes or no), total energy intake (quintiles), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–14.9, 15.0–29.9, or ≥30 g/d), red and processed meat intake (quintiles), prudent diet pattern (quintiles) and Western diet pattern (quintiles); prostate-specific antigen test in past 2 years (yes or no) for men only; and menopause status (premenopause or postmenopause), postmenopausal hormone use (never, past, or current), and mammogram in past 2 years (yes or no) for women only.

  • aIncluded only aggressive prostate cancer as total cancer.

  • bPooled results of women and men.

  • cSex-specific results of women (breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers) and men (advanced prostate cancer).