Table 1.

Age standardized baseline characteristics of participants according to mushroom consumption in 1986

Frequency of mushroom consumption, per serving
CharacteristicsNever or almost never<1/week1/week2–4/week5+/week
Women (NHS)
 No. of person15,31822,61418,3769,1002,919
 Age (years)53.4 (7.2)53.0 (7.2)52.5 (7.1)52.9 (7.0)52.9 (6.8)
 White (%)97.297.798.398.098.1
 Family history of cancer (%)15.816.316.516.816.4
 Height (cm)163.6 (6.1)163.8 (6.2)163.9 (6.2)164.0 (6.2)164.4 (6.2)
 Body mass index25.3 (4.8)25.2 (4.8)25.4 (4.8)25.5 (4.8)25.3 (4.7)
 Postmenopause (%)54.954.254.954.254.1
 Current hormone therapy use (%)13.314.315.116.016.6
 Physical examination in past 2 years (%)64.866.267.168.569.5
 History of colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy (%)16.817.818.718.720.5
 Mammogram in past 2 years (%)a71.875.777.278.680.5
 Regular aspirin use (%)40.140.042.041.940.4
 Current use of multivitamin (%)39.742.243.044.845.8
 Physical activity (MET hour/week)11.9 (19.1)12.8 (18.6)15.1 (21.6)16.6 (21.2)19.8 (25.9)
 Never smoker (%)49.445.041.140.637.4
 No of pack-years among ever smokers24.3 (19.1)23.0 (19.1)22.8 (18.9)22.1 (18.8)21.1 (18.2)
 Calorie intake (kcal/day)1,553 (505)1,536 (488)1,567 (483)1,602 (483)1,625 (501)
 Alcohol intake (g/day)4.2 (8.3)6.0 (9.5)7.4 (10.3)8.1 (10.6)9.6 (11.8)
 Red and processed meat (no of servings/week)7.0 (3.6)6.8 (3.4)6.9 (3.4)6.9 (3.5)6.5 (3.8)
 Prudent pattern (highest quintile), %9.213.223.039.251.4
 Western pattern (highest quintile), %22.319.119.819.517.5
Men (HPFS)
 No. of person9,96216,10611,7085,7631,125
 Age (years)55.8 (10.0)54.1 (9.8)53.1 (9.5)53.9 (9.7)53.7 (9.5)
 White (%)89.589.890.790.589.5
 Family history of cancer (%)8.38.28.69.27.3
 Height (cm)178.1 (7.0)178.1 (7.0)178.1 (7.2)178.1 (7.6)178.7 (6.7)
 Body mass index25.4 (3.3)25.5 (3.4)25.6 (3.2)25.7 (3.6)25.8 (3.9)
 Physical examination in past 2 years (%)a56.958.860.859.362.8
 History of colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy (%)24.025.926.727.928.5
 Prostate specific antigen test in past 2 years (%)a35.137.837.638.239.4
 Regular aspirin use (%)29.429.428.729.432.3
 Current use of multivitamin (%)40.541.241.843.544.6
 Physical activity (MET hour/week)18.7 (26.4)20.0 (27.8)22.0 (31.8)23.7 (30.2)29.0 (42.0)
 Never smoker (%)49.043.743.843.440.8
 No of pack-years among ever smokers26.3 (19.8)25.4 (19.5)25.0 (18.9)25.0 (19.3)23.1 (14.1)
 Calorie intake (kcal/day)1,906 (625)1,921 (594)2,036 (600)2,157 (635)2,298 (629)
 Alcohol intake (g/day)8.5 (14.2)11.1 (15.1)12.6 (15.8)13.5 (16.2)15.0 (18.0)
 Red and processed meat (no of servings/week)7.1 (5.4)6.8 (5.0)6.8 (4.9)6.6 (5.2)6.1 (5.2)
 Prudent pattern (highest quintile), %11.312.621.443.365.6
 Western pattern (highest quintile), %20.719.019.921.521.0
  • NOTE: Values are means (SD) or percentages and are standardized to the age distribution of the study population (except for age).

  • Abbreviation: MET, metabolic equivalent task.

  • aData from 1988 for mammogram (women) and physical examination (men), and data from 1994 for prostate-specific antigen test (men) due to the first availability of the data.