Table 2.

Mushroom consumption and risk of total and site-specific cancer (NHS, 1986–2012; HPFS, 1986–2012)

Frequency of mushroom consumption, per serving
Never or almost never<1/week1/week2–4/week5+/weekPer 2/week increasePtrend
Total cancer (n = 22,469)a,b
 Event4,9817,6885,9383,009853
 Person-years516,441803,462631,961310,3738,4651
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.04 (1.01–1.08)1.05 (1.01–1.09)1.06 (1.01–1.11)1.08 (1.00–1.16)1.03 (0.98–1.08)0.21
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.03 (1.00–1.07)1.04 (1.00–1.08)1.04 (0.99–1.09)1.06 (0.98–1.14)1.02 (0.97–1.07)0.55
Cancer sitesb
Colorectal cancer (n = 2,342)
 Event55379364728168
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.98 (0.88–1.10)1.08 (0.96–1.21)0.92 (0.79–1.06)0.87 (0.67–1.12)0.90 (0.75–1.07)0.24
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.97 (0.87–1.09)1.06 (0.94–1.19)0.89 (0.76–1.04)0.85 (0.65–1.10)0.88 (0.73–1.06)0.17
Lung cancer (n = 2,036)
 Event41476152126476
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.26 (1.12–1.43)1.15 (1.01–1.31)1.16 (1.00–1.36)1.25 (0.98–1.60)1.09 (0.94–1.27)0.25
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.25 (1.11–1.42)1.19 (1.04–1.37)1.26 (1.07–1.48)1.36 (1.05–1.76)1.17 (1.00–1.36)0.05
Lymphoma (n = 1,456)
 Event30651836920756
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.13 (0.98–1.30)1.06 (0.91–1.23)1.18 (0.99–1.41)1.23 (0.92–1.64)1.12 (0.94–1.33)0.19
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.12 (0.97–1.30)1.06 (0.91–1.25)1.20 (1.00–1.45)1.25 (0.93–1.69)1.13 (0.95–1.35)0.18
Bladder cancer (n = 1,001)
 Event21436825812833
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.18 (0.99–1.40)1.13 (0.94–1.36)1.11 (0.89–1.38)1.24 (0.85–1.79)1.15 (0.91–1.44)0.25
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.14 (0.96–1.35)1.13 (0.93–1.37)1.14 (0.90–1.44)1.29 (0.88–1.89)1.18 (0.94–1.49)0.15
Pancreatic cancer (n = 561)
 Event1242111367713
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.14 (0.91–1.43)1.01 (0.79–1.29)1.15 (0.86–1.53)0.80 (0.45–1.42)0.94 (0.66–1.35)0.76
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.14 (0.91–1.43)0.99 (0.77–1.28)1.10 (0.81–1.49)0.76 (0.42–1.38)0.90 (0.61–1.33)0.61
Kidney cancer (n = 545)d
 Event1281841467611
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.91 (0.73–1.14)0.98 (0.77–1.24)0.99 (0.74–1.31)0.56 (0.30–1.05)0.77 (0.51–1.17)0.22
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.94 (0.75–1.19)1.05 (0.82–1.35)1.10 (0.81–1.49)0.66 (0.35–1.24)0.89 (0.58–1.35)0.57
Leukemia (n = 386)
 Event93151844315
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.09 (0.84–1.42)0.82 (0.60–1.10)0.86 (0.60–1.25)1.26 (0.73–2.20)0.88 (0.54–1.41)0.59
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.07 (0.82–1.40)0.79 (0.58–1.07)0.82 (0.56–1.21)1.15 (0.65–2.05)0.83 (0.49–1.38)0.47
Multiple myeloma (n = 334)
 Event771041004310
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.91 (0.68–1.23)1.17 (0.87–1.58)1.01 (0.69–1.47)0.93 (0.48–1.81)0.90 (0.56–1.44)0.66
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.92 (0.68–1.25)1.21 (0.88–1.65)1.07 (0.72–1.59)1.01 (0.51–2.01)0.93 (0.58–1.49)0.76
Brain cancer (n = 270)
 Event6189723612
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.00 (0.72–1.39)1.05 (0.74–1.48)1.01 (0.67–1.54)1.41 (0.75–2.64)1.36 (0.96–1.94)0.09
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.03 (0.74–1.44)1.07 (0.74–1.53)1.03 (0.66–1.60)1.43 (0.74–2.75)1.37 (0.95–1.97)0.09
Oral cancer (n = 214)
 Event527450335
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.94 (0.65–1.34)0.83 (0.56–1.24)1.13 (0.73–1.76)0.65 (0.25–1.65)0.84 (0.44–1.62)0.61
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.93 (0.64–1.34)0.83 (0.55–1.25)1.17 (0.73–1.88)0.68 (0.26–1.79)0.88 (0.45–1.71)0.71
Stomach cancer (n = 203)
 Event467255228
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.10 (0.75–1.60)1.14 (0.76–1.69)0.91 (0.54–1.52)1.30 (0.61–2.78)0.99 (0.58–1.69)0.97
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.12 (0.76–1.64)1.16 (0.77–1.77)0.96 (0.56–1.64)1.37 (0.62–3.02)1.00 (0.59–1.68)0.99
Esophageal (n = 199)
 Event536543344
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.81 (0.56–1.18)0.75 (0.50–1.14)1.18 (0.76–1.83)0.65 (0.23–1.82)0.97 (0.52–1.83)0.93
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.74 (0.51–1.08)0.69 (0.45–1.06)1.09 (0.68–1.73)0.57 (0.20–1.64)0.90 (0.45–1.80)0.77
Liver cancer (n = 113)
 Event223236176
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.95 (0.55–1.65)1.58 (0.92–2.71)1.44 (0.76–2.74)2.14 (0.85–5.34)1.54 (0.96–2.46)0.07
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.05 (0.60–1.84)1.85 (1.05–3.25)1.67 (0.84–3.33)2.40 (0.91–6.33)1.66 (0.99–2.77)0.05
Sex-specific cancer sitesc
Breast cancer (n = 5,397)
 Event1,1481,8181,466753212
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.08 (1.00–1.16)1.07 (0.99–1.15)1.11 (1.01–1.22)0.98 (0.84–1.13)1.00 (0.91–1.09)0.93
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.04 (0.96–1.12)1.01 (0.93–1.09)1.03 (0.93–1.13)0.89 (0.77–1.04)0.93 (0.84–1.03)0.19
Endometrial cancer (n = 1,065)
 Event24233129713362
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.92 (0.78–1.09)1.02 (0.86–1.21)0.92 (0.74–1.14)1.32 (1.00–1.75)1.12 (0.93–1.36)0.22
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.91 (0.77–1.08)0.98 (0.82–1.17)0.83 (0.66–1.04)1.16 (0.86–1.56)1.03 (0.84–1.26)0.77
Ovarian cancer (n = 550)
 Event1401781387321
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.86 (0.69–1.07)0.83 (0.65–1.05)0.90 (0.68–1.20)0.81 (0.51–1.29)0.85 (0.60–1.21)0.36
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)0.83 (0.66–1.04)0.83 (0.65–1.06)0.95 (0.70–1.28)0.87 (0.54–1.40)0.92 (0.65–1.31)0.66
Advanced prostate cancer (n = 956)
 Event22834224411725
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.07 (0.90–1.27)1.15 (0.96–1.38)1.04 (0.83–1.30)1.10 (0.72–1.66)1.05 (0.81–1.36)0.72
 Multivariable HR (95% CI)1 (ref)1.07 (0.90–1.27)1.15 (0.95–1.39)1.01 (0.80–1.29)1.06 (0.69–1.63)1.02 (0.77–1.35)0.89
  • NOTE: Age-adjusted models included age (months).

  • Multivariable models included for age, race (white or non-white), height (continuous), body mass index (quintiles), family history of cancer (yes or no), physical exam in past 2 years (yes or no), history of colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy (yes or no), smoking in pack-years (never smoker, 1–4.9, 5–19.9, 20–39.9, or ≥40), physical activity (quintiles), regular aspirin use (yes or no), multivitamin use (yes or no), total energy intake (quintiles), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–14.9, 15.0–29.9, or ≥30 g/d), red and processed meat intake (quintiles), prudent diet pattern (quintiles) and Western diet pattern (quintiles); prostate-specific antigen test in past 2 years (yes or no) for men only; and menopause status (premenopause or postmenopause), postmenopausal hormone use (never, past, or current), and mammogram in past 2 years (yes or no) for women only.

  • aIncluded only aggressive prostate cancer as total cancer.

  • bPooled results of women and men.

  • cSex-specific results of women (breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers) and men (advanced prostate cancer).