Table 2.

Effect of naproxen dosing regimens on the modulation of markers of proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation in AOM-induced rat colonic adenocarcinoma

Inflammatory cytokine levels (pg/mg protein) mean ± SEM, N = 6–9
Experimental groupsFrequency of dose administrationPCNA PIp21 expression IHC score (1–12)p53 expression IHC score (1–12)Caspase-3 expression IHC score (1–12)IL1βIL6IL12IL10PGE2
1Control Diet56.7 ± 5.20.51 ± 0.212.1 ± 0.303.1 ± 0.512,673 ± 95557 ± 36273 ± 1842 ± 4.72,278 ± 88
2NaproxenContinuous32.3 ± 3.45.3 ± 0.614.4 ± 0.95.8 ± 1.01,438 ± 47288 ± 21168 ± 1375 ± 6.71,379 ± 51
200 ppmP < 0.0008P < 0.0001P < 0.011P < 0.011P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0003P < 0.0005P < 0.0001
3NaproxenContinuous22.4 ± 2.38.9 ± 1.35.2 ± 0.838.8 ± 1.4943 ± 38192 ± 1497 ± 8.9108 ± 8.2696 ± 38
400 ppmP < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0009P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0001
4Naproxen1 week on/34.7 ± 3.84.7 ± 0.814.2 ± 0.816.1 ± 0.941,574 ± 46342 ± 26187 ± 1479 ± 6.41,482 ± 62
200 ppm1 week offP < 0.003P < 0.0001P < 0.009P < 0.006P < 0.0001P < 0.0002P < 0.0015P < 0.0001P < 0.0001
5Naproxen1 week on/23.1 ± 2.68.2 ± 1.45.1 ± 1.08.2 ± 1.121,108 ± 31223 ± 19137 ± 1193 ± 7.1945 ± 51
400 ppm1 week offP < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.003P < 0.0003P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0001
6Naproxen3 weeks on/45.3 ± 4.72.6 ± 0.622.9 ± 0.723.7 ± 0.682,019 ± 67408 ± 33203 ± 1664 ± 5.31,643 ± 58
200 ppm3 weeks offP = 0.07P < 0.0017P = 0.14P = 0.24P < 0.0001P < 0.0051P < 0.007P < 0.004P < 0.0001
7Naproxen3 weeks on/35.2 ± 3.87.8 ± 1.24.0 ± 0.815.5 ± 0.831,647 ± 55291 ± 17172 ± 1382 ± 6.71,167 ± 43
400 ppm3 weeks offP < 0.0035P < 0.0001P < 0.015P < 0.011P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.0004P < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  • NOTE: Mean ± SEM (N = 6–9). Values are significantly different from control diet group per t test with Welch correction.