Table 3.

Secondary endpoints.

PretreatmentPosttreatmentP value for change
Category of testParameter measuredTreatmentMean ± SEMMean ± SEMRatio post/preWithin groupaBetween groupsb
Clinical assessmentUCDAI scorePlacebo1.0 ± 0.00.5 ± 0.30.5NSNS
Berberine0.8 ± 0.10.5 ± 0.20.6NS
Histologic assessmentGeboes scorePlacebo4.68 ± 0.394.45 ± 0.620.95NSNS
Berberine3.19 ± 0.442.22 ± 0.470.700.04
Tissue IHCCOX-2Placebo1.0 ± 0.51.5 ± 0.31.5NSNS
Berberine1.6 ± 0.22.0 ± 0.21.3NS
NF-κBPlacebo1.8 ± 0.62.8 ± 0.31.6NSNS
Berberine2.3 ± 0.52.5 ± 0.61.1NS
Ki-67Placebo2.3 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.60.7NSNS
Berberine1.8 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.10.7NS
Plasma cytokinesIL2, pg/mLPlacebo1.12 ± 0.724.32 ± 3.513.84NSNS
Berberine3.79 ± 2.273.99 ± 2.001.05NS
IL4, pg/mLPlacebo2.25 ± 0.002.25 ± 0.001.00NSNS
Berberine2.56 ± 0.302.41 ± 0.160.94NS
IL6, pg/mLPlacebo3.42 ± 0.185.22 ± 3.411.53NSNS
Berberine147.48 ± 150.554.26 ± 0.940.03NS
IL8, pg/mLPlacebo12.42 ± 5.8369.33 ± 104.685.58NSNS
Berberine39.68 ± 26.0334.74 ± 24.870.88NS
IL10, pg/mLPlacebo0.55 ± 0.005.03 ± 5.189.15NSNS
Berberine13.42 ± 5.1015.95 ± 5.401.19NS
TNFα, pg/mLPlacebo58.68 ± 14.9054.60 ± 2.140.93NSNS
Berberine97.78 ± 38.5862.81 ± 8.110.64NS
  • aWilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test; NS, not significant (i.e., P > 0.05).

  • bWilcoxon rank-sum test; NS, not significant (i.e., P > 0.05).