Table 1.

Inflammatory cell counts and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids: randomized trial of never smokers.

Clinical trialsControl (n = 14)E-cig use (n = 13)Control (n = 14)E-cig use (n = 13)
BaselineFollow-upBaselineFollow-upAbsolute differenceAbsolute difference
Cell countsaMedian (Range)Median (Range)PbMedian (Range)Median (Range)PbFollow-baseline medianFollow-baseline medianPc
Recovery (mL)56 (41–71)58 (40–72)0.755 (47–65)54 (37–63)0.23−0.500.26
(% of instilled volume)55 (41–71)56 (40–72)0.7355 (40–65)54 (37–63)0.250.500.30
Total cell yield (×106)14 (8–34)15 (6–23)0.9213 (9–29)10 (8–19)0.331.5−30.18
Cell concentration (x106/L)243 (141–763)268 (98–396)0.95236 (156–521)194 (141–518)0.3310−200.51
Macrophages (x106/L)203 (125–694)231 (96–350)1.00196 (152–459)176 (95–486)0.8929−310.51
(%)88 (68–98)89 (70–98)0.5387 (61–100)92 (58–100)0.11060.54
Lymphocytes (x106/L)28 (3–83)25 (1–88)0.4632 (0–159)15 (0–111)0.500.5−130.45
(%)10 (2–28)9 (1–27)0.511 (0–37)5 (0–41)0.110−60.37
Neutrophils (x106/L)5 (0–31)3 (0–19)0.773 (0–14)2 (0–12)0.581.5−10.48
(%)2 (0–6)1 (0–6)0.671 (0–6)1 (0–4)0.520.500.75
Eosinophils (x106/L)0 (0–8)0 (0–6)0.630 (0–5)0 (0–6)0.69000.79
(%)0 (0–1)0 (0–2)0.630 (0–2)0 (0–3)0.08000.33
Control (n = 15)E-cig use (n = 15)Control (n = 15)E-cig use (n = 15)
BaselineFollow-upBaselineFollow-upAbsolute differenceAbsolute difference
CytokinesMean (SD)Mean (SD)Pd valueMean (SD)Mean (SD)PdFollow-baseline medianFollow-baseline medianPc value
IL1β0.66 (0.36)1.30 (1.38)0.040.77 (0.27)1.22 (0.31)0.330.280.060.30
IL20.34 (0.14)0.41 (0.16)0.020.43 (0.12)0.40 (0.12)0.330.030.000.09
IL40.04 (0.01)0.04 (0.01)0.680.04 (0.01)0.04 (0.02)0.130.000.000.28
IL60.87 (0.54)0.96 (0.47)0.571.06 (0.59)1.03 (0.61)0.390.040.030.68
IL835.12 (59.56)26.64 (17.39)0.7424.38 (16.97)22.62 (15.29)0.421.301.860.97
IL100.09 (0.02)0.10 (0.03)0.050.09 (0.02)0.10 (0.02)0.640.010.000.36
IL12p700.13 (0.05)0.15 (0.06)0.040.15 (0.04)0.14 (0.04)0.580.020.000.09
IL132.06 (2.7)2.24 (2.93)0.091.66 (0.92)1.55 (0.59)0.690.16−0.030.11
IFNγ0.91 (0.32)0.91 (0.35)0.880.89 (0.23)0.78 (0.28)0.160.06−0.010.25
TNFα0.41 (0.15)0.46 (0.15)0.360.50 (0.23)0.51 (0.17)0.950.010.000.58
  • Note: In the e-cig use group, IL10, IL13, IL12p70, and TNFα were not detected in two subjects and INFγ was not detected in one subject. Median, range, mean, and SD were presented as raw values. None of the cell counts and cytokines reached significant if controlling FDR at 0.1.

  • aBAL with red blood cell contamination were removed for cell count.

  • bWilcoxon signed rank tests.

  • cWilcoxon rank sums.

  • dPaired t tests using log10 transformed data.