Table 4.

Frequency of participants whose biomarker levels were at least 25% or 50% higher during e-cigarette use relative to abstention.

E-cigarette typeFlavor type
Exposure (biomarker)AllCig-a–likeFixed-powerVariable-powerPodDessert or CandyFruitMentholTobacco
Sample size (N)3612156385518
A. Participants with ≥25% increase in VOC biomarker levels during e-cigarette use compared with abstinence (n, %)
 Acrolein (3-HPMA)8 (22.2)2 (16.7)4 (26.7)2 (33.3)0 (0.0)1 (12.5)2 (40.0)1 (20.0)4 (22.2)
 Acrylamide (AAMA)17 (47.2)6 (50.0)6 (40.0)3 (50.0)2 (66.7)3 (37.5)3 (60.0)3 (60.0)9 (50.0)
 Acrylonitrile (CNEMA)1 (2.8)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (16.7)0 (0.0)1 (12.5)0 (0.0)1 (20.0)0 (0.0)
 1,3-Butadiene (MHBMA-1+2)7 (19.4)2 (16.7)3 (20.0)2 (33.3)0 (0.0)2 (25.0)1 (20.0)2 (40.0)2 (11.1)
 1,3-Butadiene (MHBMA-3)13 (36.1)4 (33.3)5 (33.3)4 (66.7)0 (0.0)3 (37.5)2 (40.0)3 (60.0)6 (33.3)
 Benzene (PMA)23 (63.9)9 (75.0)9 (60.0)3 (50.0)2 (66.7)4 (50.0)5 (100.0)4 (80.0)12 (66.7)
 Crotonaldehyde (HPMMA)15 (41.7)5 (41.7)6 (40.0)2 (33.3)2 (66.7)5 (62.5)2 (40.0)5 (100)6 (33.3)
 Ethylene oxide (HEMA)6 (16.7)2 (16.7)2 (13.3)2 (33.3)0 (0.0)1 (12.5)2 (40.0)1 (20.0)1 (5.6)
 Methylating agent (MMA)11 (30.6)1 (8.3)7 (46.7)3 (50.0)0 (0.0)3 (37.5)4 (80.0)3 (60.0)4 (22.2)
 Propylene oxide (2-HPMA)18 (50.0)6 (50.0)8 (53.3)3 (50.0)1 (33.3)2 (25.0)5 (100.0)2 (40.0)10 (55.6)
B. Participants with ≥50% increase in VOC biomarker levels during e-cigarette use compared with abstinence (n, %)
 Acrolein (3-HPMA)4 (11.1)0 (0.0)2 (13.3)2 (33.3)0 (0.0)1 (12.5)0 (0.0)1 (20.0)3 (16.7)
 Acrylamide (AAMA)12 (33.3)5 (41.7)4 (26.7)2 (33.3)1 (33.3)3 (37.5)0 (0.0)3 (60.0)6 (33.3)
 Acrylonitrile (CNEMA)1 (2.8)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (16.7)0 (0.0)1 (12.5)0 (0.0)1 (20.0)0 (0.0)
 1,3-Butadiene (MHBMA-1+2)6 (16.7)2 (16.7)2 (13.3)2 (33.3)0 (0.0)2 (25.0)1 (20.0)2 (40.0)1 (5.6)
 1,3-Butadiene (MHBMA-3)10 (27.8)3 (25.0)4 (26.7)3 (50.0)0 (0.0)2 (25.0)2 (40.0)2 (40.0)5 (27.8)
 Benzene (PMA)21 (58.3)8 (66.7)8 (53.3)3 (50.0)2 (66.7)3 (37.5)5 (100.0)3 (60.0)11 (61.1)
 Crotonaldehyde (HPMMA)8 (22.2)2 (16.7)5 (33.3)0 (0.0)1 (33.3)2 (25.0)1 (20.0)2 (40.0)4 (22.2)
 Ethylene oxide (HEMA)4 (11.1)2 (16.7)1 (6.7)1 (16.7)0 (0.0)1 (12.5)1 (20.0)1 (20.0)0 (0.0)
 Methylating agent (MMA)7 (19.4)1 (8.3)5 (33.3)1 (16.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)4 (80.0)0 (0.0)3 (16.7)
 Propylene oxide (2-HPMA)11 (30.6)3 (25.0)5 (33.3)3 (50.0)0 (0.0)1 (12.5)4 (80.0)1 (20.0)6 (33.3)