Table 2.

Effect of select agents/drugs on total ACF and colon tumors in preclinical and clinical studies.

Preclinical studiesClinical studies
Agent/drugTotal ACF (model)Adenoma/cancer (model)Total rectal ACF (subject population)Adenoma (subject population)
Aspirin↓ AOM (61–65)↓ DMH (67)↓ CRC (60)↓ CRC (72)
↓ DMH (66)↓ AOM (65, 68, 69)↓ adenomas (73)
↓ AOM-DSS (70)↓ Nonsmokers with adenoma or adenocarcinomas (74)
No effect (AOM) (71)
Celecoxib↓ DMH (66, 75)↓ AOM (68)No effect (adenomas) (12)↓ Adenomas (78)
↓ ApcMin (76, 77)
DFMO↓ AOM (79, 80)↓ AOM (62, 71, 80, 81)
↓ ApcMin (77)
Sulindac↓ AOM (82)↓ ApcMin (77)↓ No history of polyps (84)↓ FAP (85–88)
↓ Pirc (83)No effect (CRC or advanced adenomas) (13)↓ No history of polyps (84)
↓ Size only (ApcMin-FCCC) (34)
DFMO + Aspirin↓ AOM (62)↓ CRC or advanced adenomas (89)No effect (CRC or advanced adenomas) (89)
DFMO + Sulindac↓ ApcMin (77)↓ Adenomas (90)
Ongoing (FAP) (91)
DFMO + Celecoxib↓ ApcMin (77)No better than celecoxib alone (FAP) (92)
Etodolac (COX-2 inhibitor)↓ AOM (82)↓ AOM-DSS (93)No effect (no history of polyps) (84)No effect (no history of polyps) (84)
Atorvastatin↓ Dysplastic ACF (baseline tumor-free ApcMin-FCCC) (34)↓ AOM (68)No effect (CRC or advanced adenomas) (13)
↓ ApcMin (76)
↓ Incidence (baseline tumor-free ApcMin-FCCC) (34)
Curcumin↓ AOM (94, 95)↓ AOM (97, 98)↓ Smokers, no history of polyps (100)No effect (FAP) (101)
↓ DMH (75, 96)↓ AOM-DSS (99)
Metformin↓ DMH & diabetic (102)↓ DMH & diabetic (102)↓ Nondiabetic, no CRC (105)↓ Nondiabetic adults with adenomas (107)
↓ DMH (103)↓ AOM (104)↓ Impaired glucose tolerance, no polyps (106)
↓ AOM (104)
  • Abbreviations: CRC: colorectal cancer; DFMO: difluoromethylornithine; DMH: dimethylhydrazine; DSS: dextran sulfate sodium; ApcMin-FCCC: Fox Chase Cancer Center strain of ApcMin mice.