Table 2.

Comparison of epidemiologic risk factors in male patients with Barrett's esophagus (n = 436) and male population–based controls (n = 948).

Barrett cohortPopulation-based control
Characteristicsn (%)n (%)P
Total436948
Age (years)
 Mean (SD)63.1 (12.3)60 (12.3)<0.001
 Range23–9338–87
GERD symptoms
 Yes260 (59.6)474 (50)0.004
 No157 (36)473 (49.9)
 Missing19 (4.4)1 (0.1)
GERD frequency among those answering yes to symptoms
 Frequently123 (47.3)89 (18.8)0.004
 Occasionally122 (46.9)385 (81.2)
 Missing15 (5.8)
Reasons for Barrett's esophagus diagnosis
 Dysphagia24 (5.5)
 Reflux186 (42.7)
 Upper abdominal discomfort47 (10.8)
 Incidental finding106 (24.3)
 Other28 (6.4)
 Missing45 (10.3)
Smoking
 Regular smoker70 (16.1)148 (15.6)<0.001
 Irregular smoker20 (4.6)18 (1.9)
 Ex-Smoker205 (47)419 (44.2)
 Nonsmoker123 (28.2)363 (38.3)
 Missing18 (4.1)
Alcohol consumption
 <40 g/day270 (61.9)756 (79.7)0.613
 >40 g/day75 (17.2)192 (20.3)
 Missing91 (20.9)
BMI (kg/m2)
 Mean BMI (SD)27.8 (4.8)27.3 (4.6)0.028
 Range18.5–70.016.8–62.2
 Missing172
Marital status
 Married304 (69.7)745 (78.6)0.005
 Single66 (15.2)94 (9.9)
 Divorced41 (9.4)72 (7.6)
 Widowed11 (2.5)37 (3.9)
 Missing14 (3.2)
Physical activity
 Very active113 (25.9)260 (27.4)0.243
 Moderately active108 (24.8)271 (28.6)
 Little active51 (11.7)135 (14.2)
 Not active146 (33.5)282 (29.8)
 Missing18 (4.1)
Actual state of fitness
 Very good43 (9.9)119 (12.5)0.002
 Good285 (65.4)687 (72.5)
 Intermediate81 (18.6)128 (13.5)
 Poor15 (3.4)14 (1.5)
 Missing12 (2.7)
Relative state of health
 Better145 (33.2)495 (52.2)<0.001
 Equal66 (15.1)59 (6.2)
 Worse152 (34.9)376 (39.7)
 Unknown60 (13.8)18 (1.9)
 Missing13 (3)
Chronic diseases
 Diabetes46 (10.6)94 (9.9)0.789
 Hypertension212 (48.6)484 (51.1)0.434
 Hypercholesterolemia204 (46.8)479 (50.5)0.217
 Neurodermatitis15 (3.4)49 (5.2)0.199
 Asthma33 (7.6)68 (7.2)0.879
 Hay fever67 (15.4)169 (17.8)0.292
  • Note: P values are from Wilcoxon and χ2 tests.