Table 1.

List of known carcinogens and their host phase II metabolic conversions.

Host phase II metabolic conversions
CarcinogenSourceAcetylationGlucuronidationMethylationSulfationGlutathione conjugationReferences
1,3-Butadiene1,3-Butadiene is a chemical made from the processing of petroleum. About 75% of the manufactured 1,3-butadiene is used to make synthetic rubber for tires on cars and trucks.33
1,4-Butanediol dimethylsulfonate (Busulfan)Chemotherapeutic34
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); “dioxin”Meat and dairy products35
2-NaphthylamineCigarette smoke26
AflatoxinsProduced by certain molds which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains36
Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetinPain-relieving and fever-reducing drug37
AzathioprineImmunosuppressant drug38
BenzeneUsed to make plastics, resins, synthetic fibers, rubber lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticides39
Estrogen-progestogen (combined)Menopausal therapy or contraceptives42
EthanolAlcoholic beverages43
FormaldehydeParticleboard, plywood, and fiberboard; glues and adhesives; permanent-press fabrics; paper product coatings; and certain insulation materials44
PhIPDietary grilled meat45
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)PCBs were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids46
TrichloroethyleneStains and varnishes, adhesives, typewriter correction fluids, paint removers, and cleaners. Contaminated air and water are the most important sources of exposure to trichloroethylene.49